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Its production is particularly well known in the Yantai region of that province. [68][69], Until March 26, 2008, a 60-foot (18 m)-tall member of the species was a prominent "centerpiece" of the sculpture garden at the Noguchi Museum in the Astoria section in the borough of Queens in New York City. [50] In its native range A. altissima is associated with at least 32 species of arthropods and 13 species of fungi. [24] It can be very difficult to eradicate, however. The problem of odor was previously avoided by only selling pistillate plants since only males produce the smell, but a higher seed production also results. Therefore, this species has been proposed as a possible biocontrol for ailanthus in the Americas. [8] The branches are light to dark gray in color, smooth, lustrous, and containing raised lenticels that become fissures with age. [7] The bark is smooth and light grey, often becoming somewhat rougher with light tan fissures as the tree ages. The flowers are small, yello… Outside Europe and the United States, the plant has been spread to many other areas beyond its native range, and is considered internationally as a noxious weed. [7][23] In the east of its range it grows most extensively in disturbed areas of cities, where it was long ago present as a planted street tree. At that time as well as now, ailanthus was common in neglected urban areas. Ailanthus altissima /eɪˈlænθəs ælˈtɪsɪmə/,[3] commonly known as tree of heaven, ailanthus, varnish tree, or in Chinese as chouchun (Chinese: 臭椿; pinyin: chòuchūn; lit. This has been attributed to the tree's ability to colonize areas of rubble of destroyed buildings where most other plants would not grow. introduced perennial tree, reproducing by seed and root suckers. Scientific Name; AIGL: Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. Other Common Names: stinking quassia, copal-tree Weed class: C Year Listed: 2012 Native to: China and Taiwan Is this Weed Toxic? [8], The pale yellow, close-grained and satiny wood of ailanthus has been used in cabinet work. Click on images of Tree of Heaven to enlarge. Its large, compound leaves are arranged alternately on the stem, and can be 30–60 cm long (occasionally up to 1 m long on vigorous young sprouts) and contain 11-33 leaflets, occasionally up to 41 leaflets. currently features 3816 plants and 23,855 images. In 1751, Jussieu planted a few seeds in France and sent others on to Philip Miller, the superintendent at the Chelsea Physic Garden, and to Philip C. Webb, the owner of an exotic plant garden in Busbridge, England. The 1943 book A Tree Grows in Brooklyn by Betty Smith uses the tree of heaven as its central metaphor, using it as an analogy for the ability to thrive in a difficult environment. He further writes (his emphasis): .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, For most landscaping conditions, it has no value as there are too many trees of superior quality; for impossible conditions this tree has a place; selection could be made for good habit, strong wood and better foliage which would make the tree more satisfactory; I once talked with an architect who tried to buy Ailanthus for use along polluted highways but could not find an adequate supply [...], In Europe, however, the tree is still used in the garden to some degree as its habit is generally not as invasive as it is in America. He decided to transfer Miller's older specific name into the genus of Desfontaines, resulting in the accepted name Ailanthus altissima. Higher numbers represent more temperate areas. var. The tree had been spared by the sculptor Isamu Noguchi when in 1975 he bought the building which would become the museum and cleaned up its back lot. It was one of the first trees brought west during a time when chinoiserie was dominating European arts, and was initially hailed as a beautiful garden specimen. [44] It is a short lived tree in any location and rarely lives more than 50 years. The website also provides access to a database and images of plants photos and herbarium specimens found at … Ailanthus altissima Other common names: Chinese Sumac, Tree of Heaven Other scientific names: Ailanthus glandulosus, Ailanthus peregrina, Toxicodendron altissimum [24] It was historically widely distributed, and the fossil record indicates clearly that it was present in North America as recently as the middle Miocene. Native to China, non-native in U.S. [11] The rachis is light to reddish-green with a swollen base. In the 2013 book Teardown: Memoir of a Vanishing City by journalist Gordon Young, the tree is referenced in a description of the Carriage Town neighborhood in Flint, Michigan. Swingle: Common Name: TREE-OF-HEAVEN: Coefficient of Conservatism: * Coefficient of Wetness: 5 Wetness Index: UPL Physiognomy: Ad Tree. [1][53] It is flexible and well suited to the manufacture of kitchen steamers, which are important in Chinese cuisine for cooking mantou, pastries and rice. For many plants, the website displays maps showing physiographic provinces within the Carolinas and Georgia where the plant has been documented. a scar left on the twig after a leaf falls) with many bundle scars (i.e. They have lenticels as well as heart-shaped leaf scars (i.e. Ailanthus altissima, commonly called tree of heaven, is native to China and was introduced into New York City in 1820 as a street tree and food source for silkworm caterpillars. Furthermore, one can scold a child by calling him a "good-for-nothing ailanthus stump sprout", meaning the child is irresponsible. Muell., orth. It is also rare in Ireland. [6] The seeds borne on the female trees are 5 mm in diameter and each is encapsulated in a samara that is 2.5 cm (0.98 in) long and 1 cm (0.39 in) broad, appearing July though August, but can persist on the tree until the next spring. The leaflets are ovate-lanceolate with entire margins, somewhat asymmetric and occasionally not directly opposite to each other. There are extant records from the 1750s of disputes over the proper name between Philip Miller and John Ellis, curator of Webb's garden in Busbridge. [46] The inhibitors are strongest in the bark and roots, but are also present in the leaves, wood and seeds of the plant. [7] In its native range it is found at high altitudes in Taiwan[22] as well as lower ones in mainland China. Leaves infested by the mite begin to curl and become glossy, reducing their ability to function. However, enthusiasm soon waned after gardeners became familiar with its suckering habits and its foul smelling odor. The roots, leaves and bark are used in traditional Chinese medicine, primarily as an astringent. [8] The current species name comes from Walter T. Swingle who was employed by the United States Department of Plant Industry. Within the oldest extant Chinese dictionary, the Erya, written in the 3rd century BC, the tree of heaven is mentioned second among a list of trees. [7] On the other hand, a study in an old-growth hemlock-hardwood forest in New York found that Ailanthus was capable of competing successfully with native trees in canopy gaps where only 2 to 15% of full sun was available. [68][69], "Tree of heaven" redirects here. [61] The plant may be mildly toxic. The Alabama Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. [1] The tree also resprouts vigorously when cut, making its eradication difficult and time-consuming. Latin name: Ailanthus altissima Common name: Tree of Heaven. The individual flowers are yellowish green to reddish in color, each with five petals and sepals. Family Name: Simaroubaceae - Quassia Family. Means of eradication can be physical, thermal, managerial, biological or chemical. Within the oldest extant Chinese dictionary, the Erya, written in the 3rd century BC, the tree of heaven is mentioned second among a list of trees. [27] The tree has furthermore become unpopular in cultivation in the west because it is short-lived and that the trunk soon becomes hollow, making trees more than two feet in diameter unstable in high winds.[53]. Interestingly, Tree-of-Heaven has another common name — Chinese sumac — which shows how similar these plants look, without closer inspection. [19] It has been introduced in many regions across the world. It was mentioned again in a materia medica compiled during the Tang dynastyin 656 AD. Ailanthus altissima resembles native sumac and hickory species, but it is easily distinguished by the glandular, notched base on each leaflet. southeastern Central Europe around the Danube river basin from Austria, Slovakia and Hungary south to the Balkan ranges) and most countries of the Mediterranean Basin. It was mentioned in the oldest extant Chinese dictionary and listed in many Chinese medical texts for its purported curative ability. Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) No matter where its seed falls, it makes a tree which struggles to reach the sky. [8][23] It also grows along roads and railways. Trees of Canada →, Latin (scientific) name: Ailanthus altissima. [20] It was once very popular in cultivation in both Europe and North America, but this popularity dropped, especially in the United States, due to the disagreeable odor of its blossoms and the weediness of its habit. [23] It has naturalized across much of Europe, including Germany,[27] Austria, Switzerland, the Czech Republic, the Pannonian region (i.e. Swingle ( ITIS) Common Name: Tree-of-heaven, China-sumac, varnishtree. Each leaflet has one to three teeth on each side, close to the base. [36] It sometimes enters undisturbed areas as well and competes with native plants. Leaves large, 30-40 cm or more long. For more information on plant hardiness zones in Canada, visit Natural Resources Canada. Names. Shade considerably hampers growth rates. Light was shed on the taxonomic status of ailanthus in 1788 when René Louiche Desfontaines observed the samaras of the Paris specimens, which were still labelled Rhus succedanea, and came to the conclusion that the plant was not a sumac. [70], Ingo Vetter, a German artist and professor of fine arts at Umeå University in Sweden, was influenced by the idea of the "ghetto palm" and installed a living ailanthus tree taken from Detroit for an international art show called Shrinking Cities at the Kunst-Werke Institute for Contemporary Art in Berlin in 2004. Restrict human access? ", "Penn State Scientists: Tree of Heaven Really Isn't", "A Tree That Survived a Sculptor's Chisel Is Chopped Down". It has a smooth, grey bark with compound leaves which are alternate, odd-pinnate, with 11-25 lanceolate leaflets. Male trees produce three to four times as many flowers as the females, making the male flowers more conspicuous. [56], Tree of heaven is a popular ornamental tree in China and valued for its tolerance of difficult growing conditions. It becomes rare in the north, occurring only infrequently in southern Scotland. It has now naturalized throughout much of the United States. [7] Ailanthus is among the most pollution-tolerant of tree species, including sulfur dioxide, which it absorbs in its leaves. Ailanthus, Chinese sumac, and stinking sumac. The roots are also aggressive enough to cause damage to subterranean sewers and pipes. A large polygamous tree, upto 30 m high or more. In China, the tree of heaven has a long and rich history. It grows up out of cellar gratings. It spreads aggressively both by seeds and vegetatively by root sprouts, re-sprouting rapidly after being cut. Native of China, introduced into North America in 1784 as an ornamental. [8] The leaflets' upper sides are dark green in color with light green veins, while the undersides are a more whitish green. It grows in boarded up lots and out of neglected rubbish heaps. A.K.A. Ailanthus altissima Common name: Tree of Heaven Symptoms induced in controlled conditions (fumigation with ozone) Fumigation of Ailanthus altissimawith enhanced ozone levels in Open Top Chambers (OTCs) produced a brown interveinal stippling. It is extremely fast-growing and it will grow almost anywhere. Stems. A fast growing deciduous tree from China can grow 20m or more. [8][16] The specific glandulosa, referring to the glands on the leaves, persisted until as late as 1957, but it was ultimately made invalid as a later homonym at the species level. Zhejiang Province in eastern China is most famous for producing these steamers. Each work favoured a different character, however, and there is still some debate in the Chinese botanical commun… [1] Ailanthus has become a part of western culture as well, with the tree serving as the central metaphor and subject matter of the best-selling American novel A Tree Grows in Brooklyn by Betty Smith. [7][9] The sepals are cup-shaped, lobed and united while the petals are valvate (i.e. "[64] [16][63] She writes: There's a tree that grows in Brooklyn. It is drought-hardy, but not tolerant of flooding. [39], In northern Europe the tree of heaven was not considered naturalised in cities until after the Second World War. [66], Ailanthus is also sometimes counter-nicknamed "tree from hell" due to its prolific invasiveness and the difficulty in eradicating it. Festive Victorian-era homes in various stages of restoration battled for supremacy with boarded-up firetraps and overgrown lots landscaped with weeds, garbage, and “ghetto palms,” a particularly hardy invasive species known more formally as Ailanthus altissima, or the tree of heaven, perhaps because only God can kill the things. It has escaped cultivation in all areas where it was introduced, but most extensively in the United States. Follow us on social media to keep up-to-date. J. Kelly. Synonyms: Toxicodendron altissimum Mill.;A. The name is derived from the Ambonese word ailanto, meaning "heaven-tree" or "tree reaching for the sky". A tincture of the root bark was thought useful by American herbalists in the 19th century. [35] Similarly, another study conducted in southwestern Virginia determined that the tree of heaven is thriving along approximately 30% of the state's interstate highway system length or mileage. This has led to the tree being called "tree of hell" among gardeners and conservationists. Ailanthus rhodoptera F. Muell. It proved able to kill nearly 100% of seedlings with the exception of velvetleaf, which showed some resistance. Deciduous trees, up to 25 m tall; bark smooth and straightly grained; branches with pith, yellow or yellow-brown pubescent when young. Because the trees exhibit rapid growth for the first few years, the trunk has uneven texture between the inner and outer wood, which can cause the wood to twist or crack during drying. Ailanthus altissima. The same study tested the extract as an herbicide on garden cress, redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), yellow bristlegrass (Setaria pumila), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), pea (Pisum sativum cv. Some people call it the Tree of Heaven. The plant is sometimes incorrectly cited with the specific epithet in the masculine (glandulosus or altissimus), which is incorrect since botanical, like Classical Latin, treats most tree names as feminine. Swingle Tree of Heaven. Datasets available include LCSH, BIBFRAME, LC Name Authorities, LC Classification, MARC codes, PREMIS vocabularies, ISO language codes, and more. Latin (scientific) name: Ailanthus altissima Common English name: Ailanthus Other names: Tree of heaven French name: Ailante glanduleux It is the only tree that grows out of cement. [33] In South Africa it is listed as an invasive species which must be controlled, or removed and destroyed.[34]. Den dey ghy stroy de bes ba'yton singer in nawth Mississippi! In London the specimens were named by Miller as Toxicodendron altissima and in Busbridge it was dubbed in the old classification system as Rhus Sinese foliis alatis. The pistil is made up of five free carpels (i.e. Ailanthus altissima Common name(s): Tree-of-Heaven The Tree-of-Heaven is native to northern China where it has a rich history dating back hundreds of years. Ailanthus altissima. INVASIVE PLANT Ailanthus altissima is listed as an exotic invasive species to the Midwest by the Midwest Invasive Plant Network and should not be planted in the Midwest. [37][38] It is classified as a noxious or invasive plant on National Forest System lands and in many states[39] because its prolific seed production, high germination rates and capacity to regrow from roots and root fragments enable A. altissima[40] to out-compete native species. Scientific Name: Ailanthus altissima Common name: Tree of Heaven Page 1 of 2 QUESTION COMMENTS REFERENCE RANKING Social 1. Native To: China ( Fryer 2010) Date of U.S. Introduction: In both Europe and America it quickly became a favoured ornamental, especially as a street tree, and by 1840 it was available in most nurseries. [22] In China it is native to every province except Gansu, Heilongjiang, Hainan, Jilin, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Tibet. For this reason, control measures on public lands[41] and private property[42] are advised where A. altissima has naturalized. Their styles are united and slender with star-shaped stigmas. People living near the lower Yellow River know it by the name chunshu (simplified Chinese: 椿树; traditional Chinese: 椿樹; pinyin: chūnshù), meaning "spring tree". The Plants Database includes the following 1 species of Ailanthus . This helps distinguish it from sumacs (Rhusspp.). There is also a selection, A. altissima f. erythrocarpa, that produces "bright red seeds". [55] There are problems with using the wood as lumber, however. It can withstand very low phosphorus levels and high salinity levels. small marks where the veins of the leaf once connected to the tree) around the edges. Return to our Trees of Canada resource here: Common Name: Tree of Heaven: Scientific Name: Ailanthus altissima: Family: Simaroubaceae : Growth Form: Tree: Native Range: Central China: Invasive Range: The Tree of Heaven has invaded 42 of the 50 United States, including the majority of the East and West coasts. they are not fused), each containing a single ovule. The same study characterised the tree as using a "gap-obligate" strategy in order to reach the forest canopy, meaning it grows rapidly during a very short period rather than growing slowly over a long period. Ailanthus altissima is a small to medium-sized tree of the mostly tropical Quassia family. Hardiness zones are based largely on climate, particularly minimum temperatures. Sugar Snap) and maize (Zea mays cv. Tree of heaven Tree-of-heaven, commonly referred to as Ailanthus altissima, is a rapidly growing deciduous tree native to a region extending from northern and central China, Taiwan and northern Korea to Australia. This derives from the literature of Zhuangzi, a Taoist philosopher, who referred to a tree that had developed from a sprout at the stump and was thus unsuitable for carpentry due to its irregular shape. Toxicodendron altissimum Mill. [54] The wood is also used to make charcoal for culinary purposes. The flowers are small and appear in large panicles up to 50 cm (20 in) in length at the end of new shoots. Tree of heaven is an opportunistic plant that thrives in full sun and disturbed areas. [7] In China it is often found in limestone-rich areas. [15] The females can produce huge amounts of seeds, normally around 30,000 per kilogram (14,000/lb) of tree,[7] and fecundity can be estimated non-destructively through measurements of dbh.[14]. Common Name: Tree of heaven Botanical name: Ailanthus altissima Legal Status: NEMBA Category 1b. Scientific Name: Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) This includes data values and the controlled vocabularies that house them. [1], The tree prefers moist and loamy soils, but is adaptable to a very wide range of soil conditions and pH values. In many areas it has become a noxious weed. Ailantus rhodoptera F. Although the live tree tends to have very flexible wood, the wood is quite hard once properly dried. Swingle. [58] In Germany the tree is commonly planted in gardens. TOAL4: Toxicodendron altissimum Mill. [26] Within China itself it has also been naturalized beyond its native range in areas such as Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang. D'Incarville had sent seeds from Peking via Siberia to his botanist friend Bernard de Jussieu in the 1740s. Freely suckers from roots forming thickets.” Occurs in a broad range of vegetative communities including riparian areas, artificial waterways and urban areas. Family: Simaroubaceae. [8], Confusion in naming began when the tree was described by all three men with three different names. [48] The chemical does not, however, affect the tree of heaven's own seedlings, indicating that A. altissima has a defence mechanism to prevent autotoxicity. Despite this, it was used extensively as a street tree during much of the 19th century. The moth has also been introduced in the United States. This fast growing tree can reach 80 feet in its relatively short life (50 years). [23] It is frequently found in areas where few trees can survive. [16] Michael Dirr, a noted American horticulturalist and professor at the University of Georgia, reported meeting, in 1982, a grower who could not find any buyers. The petioles are 5–12 mm (0.2-0.5 inch) long. [5] It is considered a noxious weed and vigorous invasive species,[1] and one of the worst invasive plant species in Europe and North America. [9] The lobed bases and glands distinguish it from similar sumac species. A hardiness zone is a geographically defined area where a given plant is capable of growing. The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. The tree is commonly called tree of heaven—from the Ambonese word aylanto (rendered ailanthus in Latin). Toxicodendron altissimumMill. [1] It is native to northeast and central China, and Taiwan. All parts of the plant have a distinguishing strong odor that is often likened to peanuts, cashews,[9] or rotting cashews.[10]. [1] The noxious odours have been associated with nausea and headaches, and with contact dermatitis reported in both humans and sheep, which developed weakness and paralysis. By 2008, the old tree was found to be dying and in danger of crashing into the building, which was about to undergo a major renovation. It involves the application of foliar or basal herbicides in order to kill existing trees, while either hand pulling or mowing seedlings in order to prevent new growth. It grows lushly...survives without sun, water, and seemingly earth. The ailanthus webworm (Atteva aurea) is an ermine moth now found commonly in the United States. [23] The roots are poisonous to people. Seeds produced from exposed plants have also been shown to be more resistant than their unexposed counterparts. In the United Kingdom it is especially common in London squares, streets, and parks, though it is also frequently found in gardens of southern England and East Anglia. It has colonized natural areas in Hungary, for example, and is considered a threat to biodiversity at that country's Aggtelek National Park. [12] It contains phytochemicals, such as quassin and saponin, and ailanthone. [20], In North America, the leaves of ailanthus are sometimes attacked by Aculops ailanthii, a mite in the family Eriophyidae. [20] The tree of heaven is found within a wide range of climatic conditions. Studies found that Californian trees grew faster than their East Coast counterparts, and American trees in general grew faster than Chinese ones. [1] It is also unable to take dye. Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Ailanthus altissima Common name(s): Tree-of-Heaven The Tree-of-Heaven is native to northern China where it has a rich history dating back hundreds of years. It contains a quinone irritant, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, as well as quassinoids. It has smooth stems with pale gray bark, and twigs which are light chestnut brown, especially in the dormant season. The plant belongs to Ailanthus Desf. All have some positive and negative aspects, but the most effective regimen is generally a mixture of chemical and physical control. It was mentioned again in a materia medica compiled during the Tang dynasty in 656 AD. The samara is large and twisted at the tips, making it spin as it falls, assisting wind dispersal,[7][9] and aiding buoyancy for long-distance dispersal through hydrochory. This fast growing tree can reach 80 feet in its relatively short life (50 years). [25] In Taiwan it is present as var. [17] Altissima is Latin for "tallest",[18] and refers to the sizes the tree can reach. D'Incarville attached a note indicating this, which caused much taxonomic confusion over the next few decades. 2-10 mm long; petiole ca. The name is in reference to the great heights of the tree (helped by a very robust grow rate). Common Name: tree-of-Heaven, tree-that-grows-in-Brooklyn. Most leaflets have one to three coarse teeth near their base. The tree is associated with the black prisoner's despair in the face of his impending execution and the spirituals that he sings in chorus with other black people who keep a sort of vigil in the street below: ...they sang spirituals while white people slowed and stopped in the leafed darkness that was almost summer, to listen to those who were sure to die and him who was already dead singing about heaven and being tired; or perhaps in the interval between songs a rich, sourceless voice coming out of the high darkness where the ragged shadow of the heaven-tree which snooded the street lamp at the corner fretted and mourned: "Fo days mo! 30-50 cm long; petiolules ca. The ends of the branches become pendulous. Mature trees … [24] In Montenegro[28] and Albania[29][30] A. altissima is widespread in both rural and urban areas and while in the first it was introduced as an ornamental plant, it very soon invaded native ecosystems with disastrous results and became an invasive species. Later scholars associated this tree with ailanthus and applied the metaphor to children who, like stump sprouts of the tree, will not develop into a worthwhile human being if they don't follow rules or traditions.[62]. [61], In addition to the tree of heaven's various uses, it has also been a part of Chinese culture for many centuries and has more recently attained a similar status in the west. : 'foul smelling tree'), is a deciduous tree in the family Simaroubaceae. [47] Another experiment showed a water extract of the chemical was either lethal or highly damaging to 11 North American hardwoods and 34 conifers, with the white ash (Fraxinus americana) being the only plant not adversely affected. It would be considered beautiful except that there are too many of it. A combination of several of these can be most effective, though they must of course be compatible. [28] Ailanthus has also been introduced to Argentina,[23] Australia (where it is a declared weed in New South Wales and Victoria),[31] New Zealand (where it is listed under the National Pest Plant Accord and is classed an "unwanted organism"),[32] the Middle East and in some countries in South Asia such as Pakistan. The name stems from the fact that A. altissima is one of the last trees to come out of dormancy, and as such its leaves coming out would indicate that winter was truly over. The tree grows rapidly and is capable of reaching heights of 15 m (50 feet) in 25 years. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. [8], In Chinese literature, ailanthus is often used for two rather extreme metaphors, with a mature tree representing a father and a stump being a spoiled child. Ailanthus altissima tree of heaven Legal Status. The seeds sent by d'Incarville were thought to be from the economically important and similar looking Chinese varnish tree (Toxicodendron vernicifluum), which he had observed in the lower Yangtze region, rather than the tree of heaven. In North America, A. altissima is present from Massachusetts in the east, west to southern Ontario, southwest to Iowa, south to Texas, and east to the north of Florida. The first scientific descriptions of the tree of heaven were made shortly after it was introduced to Europe by the French Jesuit Pierre Nicholas d'Incarville. Leaves compound, imparipinnate, ca. Populations without prior exposure to the chemicals are most susceptible to them. Furthermore, the male plants emit a foul-smelling odor while flowering to attract pollinating insects. [8][16] The tree was separately brought to California in the 1890s by Chinese immigrants who came during the California Gold Rush. [23] In western North America it is most common in mountainous areas around old dwellings and abandoned mining operations.

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