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The area became known as Bleeding Kansas. While there were many political and cultural differences between the North and the South that contributed to the American Civil War, the main cause of the war was slavery. That was, in fact, almost the only issue in the four-way presidential race. Dred Scott was a slave whos master brought him to Illinois to live as a free slave for a time. Perhaps surprisingly, Edward Pollard of Richmond, who had his finger on the Confederate pulse, explained in 1866 that Lincoln’s 1860 election, with its power shift to the North, caused the South to leave the Union, “which no longer afforded any guaranty for her rights or any permanent sense of security” and which intended to “destroy her institutions, and even involve the lives of her people.” His analysis continued: “Power in the hands of the North affected the safety and happiness of every individual in the South.” The code words for slavery protection were the substance of his conclusions.14 In fact, the seceding states themselves complained that the federal government was not doing enough to protect slavery and that non-slave states were exercising their own rights in a manner disagreeable to the slave states (for example, by passing “liberty laws” to hinder efforts to retrieve runaway slaves). ANTI–STATES’ RIGHTS: THE ROLE OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IN PRESERVING SLAVERY, The interplay between slavery and states’ rights was always complex. The Civil War began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces attacked a U.S. Union military installation at Fort Sumter in South Carolina. Aim : consider and explain how six causes helped cause the English Civil War and the rank their importance. These are all considered to be causes of the Civil War. When antislavery candidate Abraham Lincoln was elected president (1860), the Southern states seceded. Despite their declaration in 1776 that “all men are created equal,” they affirmed the continuation of slavery in the U.S. Constitution of 1787. What could have been done during the Antebellum to stop the war? After you have ranked them, write one sentence explaining why you ranked each cause the way you did. © HistoryOnTheNet 2000-2019. its foe.”, Michael C. C. Adams agrees with this analysis: “Appeals to state sovereignty usually masked other, more pragmatic, interests. Antebellum Review: 1848-1860 What are the primary causes of the Civil War? What's Included with this Rank & Reason: In NextLesson’s Rank & Reason exercises, students are prompted to rank a list of choices based on a discussion question. The Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision denied citizenship for African-Americans. John Brown led a band of 21 men, both black and white, and led them into Harpers Ferry, Virginia, where he started a slave uprising and killed and held many citizens hostage. What  caused the Civil War? . Clearly, many in the North disagreed with returning fugitive slaves to their owners and especially to the shipping south of innocent free blacks as alleged runaways under the new procedures. Having acknowledged that, let me also say I have long believed there is no more concise or stirring accounting for the war than the sentiments propounded by Irish poet William Butler Yeats in The Second Coming, some lines of which are included in this essay. At the start of his reign (1625) King Charles I had married the Roman Catholic Henrietta Maria of France. Non-slavery rationales for the Civil War certainly are not dead. . In the years prior to the Civil War almost all sectional conflicts revolved around the enslavement issue. A historian of the Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey, he is a publisher of popular history, a podcaster, and online course creator. A concise but accurate account of the 10 major causes of the American Civil War. He is a student of the American Civil War and has visited more than 132 battlefields and museums and taken over 4,000 photographs. Southern secessionist leaders’ own words made clear their economic dependence upon slavery, the interconnection between slavery and white supremacy, and their violent reactions to perceived threats to the peculiar institution—reactions that led them to secede. It was part of a Europe wide conflict between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. Of course, both sides claimed that God and the Bible were on their sides and had numerous biblical quotations to support their positions. While many still debate the ultimate causes of the Civil War, Pulitzer … Click here for our podcast series Key Battles of the Civil War. Ayers identifies slavery as “the key catalytic agent in a volatile new mix of democratic politics and accelerated communication, a process chemical in its complexity and subtlety.” Specifically, “People on both sides were playing out future scenarios even as they responded to immediate threats. 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